The swaddling clothes of Jesus ~ the MOST famous baby blanket in history 

The swaddling clothes of the Baby Jesus could arguably be the most famous baby blanket in the history of the world. But were they really a baby blanket in the 21st century sense of the term? Well sort of.

Artwork of the Nativity

Upon entering this world from the cozy, confines of mommy’s womb, babies compel us to clean, comfort, and protect them in some sort of wrapping. Even God Incarnate, who came to us as a vulnerable infant, was swaddled by His mommy.

If you enjoy historical fiction, click the picture for a great holiday read!

The Swaddling Clothes - a novella by Amber Schamel

The babe's swaddling clothes have been a topic of speculation for over two millennia. Several theories have been set forth as to what these clothes were and what was their purpose. Keep reading for four viewpoints.

Luke 2: 4-20

The entire account of the Messiah’s birth originally comes to us from the Holy Scriptures. The Bible’s New Testament book of Luke gives us the story of His coming. Click here to read the entire account.

The story we know and love

"And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn."  Luke 2:7 KJV

Western tradition states that Jesus was born in a stable behind an inn with a No Vacancy sign. A stable, or cave, such as this would house traveler’s mules and horses, as well as the inn owner’s animals such as cows and goats, maybe even chickens. Now, I’m not saying it couldn’t have happened this way, but aren’t these types of stables smelly, dusty, and risky for newborns?

Perhaps this was to symbolize the humility of Jesus coming to our Earth from his place of glory. (A closer look at the Greek word used for "inn" suggests that it could have been a family's spare room, rented out for the occasion of the census.)

If so, then what about the swaddling clothes? According to ancient historical records, swaddling infants with strips of cloth was a common practice. Then why did the angels specifically tell the shepherds they would find the Babe wrapped in swaddling clothes as a sign to them of His identity? Of course, He would be swaddled, no news there. And in whose stable would they find the Child? Lots of people were in Bethlehem during the census. The angels never specified where to look other than in a manger.

Swaddling clothes ~ the custom

The Jewish tradition of using swaddling clothes to welcome a newborn into the family went something like this:

~The midwife or other birth attendant cut and tied the umbilical cord, then washed the infant with water. At this time, she may have rubbed the child’s skin with a powder made of dried myrtle leaves. The properties of myrtle would have been beneficial to the child.

~The baby was laid diagonally on a square yard of cloth, probably cotton muslin or linen. The swaddling band may or may not have been attached to this cloth at a corner. The attendant then gently rubbed the baby’s skin with salt finely ground into powder. The salt represented the legitimacy of the child, that he or she was born into a known family and was a recognized member of the community, not a bastard.

~The cloth was folded over the infant’s arms and legs, then the swaddling bands were wrapped. Under the chin, over the forehead, then around the child’s body and limbs so that the arms and legs were straight. This signified that the parents would raise the child to be upright and to walk a straight path.

Here's one theory about the swaddling clothes

Many people believe that the swaddling clothes represent the reason that Christ came in the first place, to die for our sins. At that time, the shroud of a dead person was also referred as “swaddling cloth,” even though the Greek word was different from the one used in Luke's gospel for the birth.

Apparently, travel in the Middle East at the time of Jesus’ birth was fraught with dangers and hardships. No guarantee existed that travelers would reach their destination. Religious law required a dead body to be buried immediately upon its demise. So, it is reported that travelers would prepare for their journey by wrapping a long strip of lightweight cloth around their body under their clothing in case somebody died. The corpse could be wrapped and buried.

If Mary had not the foresight to bring clean wrappings, the newborn Messiah might have been swaddled in the burial cloth that Joseph may have wrapped around himself for the trip, thus foreshadowing His ultimate purpose.

Here's another possible theory shared a speculation that Mary may have been given priestly swaddling bands from her cousin Elizabeth and her husband Zacharias, a priest in the temple. Apparently, when the priests were done serving their time in the holiest place, they cut their embroidered priestly garments into strips to be given as a gift to a newborn Davidic king. Wearing these swaddling clothes would have been a sign that the infant was indeed of the royal line of David.

Elizabeth knew without doubt that Mary was the mother of the Lord Immanuel and that he was fully deserving to wear the priestly swaddling bands. Joseph was of the lineage of King David ~ Mary, while definitely of the priestly line of Aaron, may also have been of David's line on the maternal side. While preparing for the census trip to Bethlehem, Mary would have packed these distinguishing bands given by her cousin precisely for the purpose of swaddling her newborn son.

Maybe this one?

Some say that Mary herself embroidered swaddling bands with symbols of the tribe of Judah, to be used to bind her hand with Joseph’s in the betrothal ceremony. Afterwards, these bands would be saved to swaddle their infant children, thus identifying them as being of their family. However, I could find no evidence in my internet search to support the use of such handfasting in Jewish wedding tradition.

John D. Keyser of maintains that the act of using salt and swaddling clothes on the child proves that Joseph, not God’s Spirit, is the true and natural father of Jesus. He indicates that ancient middle eastern custom dictates that a child not salted and swaddled is an illegitimate child. Only those infants whose parents are known and accepted in the local community are salted and swaddled. Therefore, Joseph must be the true father of Jesus.

This position seems to disregard that the Scriptures state it takes two or three witnesses to settle a matter. This principle is mentioned several times in the Bible’s Old and New Testaments. Mary knew Jesus was the Son of God. Joseph knew it because the angel told him, and Elizabeth knew it because it was revealed to her as well. These three agree that God is the Father of Jesus, therefore the swaddling bands could have been a sign of his legitimate birth as the Son of God.

Jewish traditions may explain the swaddling clothes

The Scripture contains Old Testament references that are prophecies about the coming of the Messiah. It is through these that we get another, more in-depth view of the meaning of the swaddling clothes. 

Alfred Edersheim, a minister and Biblical scholar in the 19th century, indicates that the special flocks that provided the lambs used for ritual sacrifices and for Passover in the Temple of Jerusalem (4 miles away) were raised in the hills around Bethlehem.

Migdal Eder was a watchtower built in/near Bethlehem to protect the temple flocks. Lambs that were destined to become ritual and ceremonial sacrifices in the temple at Jerusalem were born in the birthing room below the "tower of the flock," (in Hebrew Migdal Eder). It was kept ceremonially clean according to strict rabbinical rules.

During lambing season, the ewes were brought here to birth their young. Specially-trained shepherds would make judgments about which lambs qualified as worthy to be a sacrificial lamb. If they qualified by being without spot or blemish, they would be wrapped with “swaddling cloths” to protect them from harming themselves. Lambs are lively little creatures. Those that were not suitable were re-joined to the flock to bear other lambs.

Cooper P. Abrams III cites much biblical and historical evidence that agrees with Edersheim. Read more here -

One for Israel explains the significance of Migdal Eder

The priestly shepherds of the Christmas Story knew exactly where the angels meant when they said, “Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.” English Bibles are typically translated from Greek. The Greek word for “manger” most commonly means “stall,” such as where animals are kept (It is translated as such in Luke 13:15). The birthing room below the tower of the flock, Migdal Eder, where the unblemished sacrificial lambs were born, is a birthplace that qualifies as a sign of the unblemished Lamb of God who came to take away the sins of the world.

Luke 2 KJV

And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem;

To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.

And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered.

And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.

And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.

And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid.

10 And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.

11 For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.

12 And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.

13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,

14 Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.

15 And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us.

16 And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger.

17 And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child.

18 And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds.

19 But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart.

20 And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.

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Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, From the manger in Bethlehem to the baptism in Jordan, The nativity of Jesus the Messiah, Book 2, Chapter VI, Hindrickson Publishers: 1993, p131.